The ORM Foundation

Get the facts!

What you can do (better) with ORM

Specify requirements
Agree semantics before writing code
Generate a class model
Generate a fully normalized schema
Generate DDL
Analyse database semantics
Audit an organisation 

Events & News 

10 Jan 2018 - NORMA software and tutorials
You can now download the NORMA software and Tutorials without registering as a member. 

11 April 2017: NORMA - Issue validation
If you want to help to improve NORMA, please send an email to

Sep 2016: Update to NORMA Tutorial
A new version of NORMA Tutorial 1 is now available in the Library.  

9 July 2016: All Models are Logical
Professor Gordon Everest has posted this new video that positions ORM and explains why "All Models are Logical".   

NORMA runs in the FREE Editions of Visual Studio 2013 & 2015 

Click an image

Microsoft's ORM tool

  For ORM users

ORM details book. 


The ORM Foundation promotes object-role modeling which is a formal method for defining requirements and developing applications.

I first heard about ORM in the early 1990's when I was looking for a data modeling tool and I was intrigued by the productivity claims so I wanted to know more. I flew to Seattle to meet Terry Halpin and the team who were developing InfoModeler for Paul Allen. I was so impressed that I agreed to promote and distribute InfoModeler in Europe.

Years later, after I had taught many business analysts, software developers and university professors how to design databases using InfoModeler and VisioModeler, Terry asked me to co-author a book about Microsoft's new ORM tool called "Visio for Enterprise Architects" (VEA). (the blue book in the sidebar). The book was published in 2003 to coincide with Microsoft's VEA product launch.

The first academic ORM Workshop (1994) was run by Terry Halpin and Robert Meersman on Magnetic Island, Australia. Between 2005 and 2013, the ORM Workshop ran in conjunction with Robert Meersman's annual On The Move conference. At the 2005 Workshop, those present agreed by unanimous vote that an ORM Foundation was needed to promote ORM. This led me to set up this website as a service to the global ORM Community.

Ken Evans


This video gives an overview of the ORM data driven development process. I compiled the video from material that I made about five years ago when I was teaching ORM to University students.


ORM Book: Terry Halpin's "Object-Role Modeling Workbook" has lots of exercises and explains how to generate reports, glossaries, relational mapping options, annotated relational schemas, schema optimization and data modeling patterns. Click the image to read more. 

Try the exercises with the freeware NORMA tool.


ORM 2014 Workshop: The ORM 2014 Workshop was held in the beautiful town of Bolzano, Italy. The two day event started on Monday September 22 at the KRDB Research Centre in the Faculty of Computer Science at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano. The workshop was kindly hosted by Professor Enrico Franconi and chaired by Professor Terry Halpin. The workshop was followed by a meeting of the Fact Based Modeling Working Group chaired by Serge Valera of the European Space Agency. 


The need for ORM 

All too often, software projects greatly exceed budget and timescale or are cancelled at great cost. People who study and write about failed IT projects such as journalist Tony Collins often cite "vague requirements" as a main cause of project failure.

So you might conclude that there would be fewer failed projects if each project started with a clear and agreed set of requirements that defined "what" the project had to deliver before investing in a project to implement the "how".

In 1975, Fred Brooks said "Because our ideas are faulty, we have bugs."  (The Mythical Man Month). Twenty five years later, after extensive research into the causes of IT project failures, Tony Collins suggested that every project should be split into two separate and independent contracts: The first contract should define requirements and the second contract should develop software and systems that conform to the requirements.

But projects still keep failing which suggests that the "requirements lesson" learned in the 1950's seems to have been forgotten, disparaged or discarded. So let's consider three possible problem sources: sponsoring managers, documentation and development methods.  

Some sponsors just don't have time to get involved in the development process. Others, having agreed a project's concepts, benefits and budget, choose not to get involved and just want the developers to "get on with it". But whatever the style of management, busy sponsors would benefit by ensuring that their needs are understood by developers. So what's most efficient way to do it?

Developers need a clear understanding of what the sponsors want. But requirements documents often contain dozens if not hundreds of pages of verbose and ambiguous prose. Can this problem be solved?

Over the last 60 years, several methods have been used to bridge the requirements gap between sponsors and developers.

In the 1950's, the waterfall method was used for the SAGE computer project. Waterfall was also used by NASA's Apollo project which operated with IMS, IBM's hierarchical database management system. A hierarchical database is very fast when you want to find data by navigating the hierarchical pointer structure that was specified by the database designer. But it is much harder to extract data that is spread across several branches of the hierarchy.  

In 1969, Edgar Codd proposed the relational model as a solution to this problem. The first sentence of his 1970 paper says "Future users of large data banks must be protected from having to know how the data is organized in the machine".  His paper introduced the concept of normal form and the related process of normalization which is needed to avoid logical inconsistencies, anomalies, data duplication and excessive maintenance costs.

In 1976, Peter Chen proposed the Entity-Relationship (ER) model for database design. ER remains popular but there is no standard. One problem with ER is that to remove anomalies and redundancies, you must use complex, time-consuming and error prone manual methods such as functional dependency analysis to normalize your ER model. So my "elephant in the room" question for ER modelers is: "If it is so difficult to get rid of the anomalies and redundancies in your ER model, why did you put them there in the first place?" I wonder if Edsger Dijkstra was thinking about ER when he said "All unmastered complexity is of our own making!"

In the 1990's, Grady Booch, Ivar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh developed UML, a method for designing object-oriented programs. With UML, you define a data structure by using a class diagram. UML is complex, ambiguous and inconsistent which makes it hard to design a class structure that does not contain similar anomalies to those in an ER model.


Why ORM? ORM is a formal language that can be used to specify requirements, design databases and audit organisations. When you design an object-role model, you can avoid the need to write long documents in ambiguous natural language prose. Non-technical sponsors can easily validate an object-role model because it can be expressed in easy-to-understand formal sentences. After the domain experts have validated the object-role model it can be used to generate a class model or a fully normalized database schema. 


How do you make an object-role model? An ORM analyst guides sponsors to express their ideas using simple formal sentences such as "The person called Fred was born on 15th July 1985." and "The person called Mary was born on 10th July 1990". In ORM we call such formal sentences "facts".  The analyst then looks for patterns in the facts. So, for example, these two facts fit the pattern "Person was born on BirthDate". In ORM, we call such patterns "fact types".  

Usually, the scope of the fact types must be restricted. For example in the year 2017, you can't have someone with a birth date that is in the year 2018 or later. So you use ORM to put a constraint on the allowable values of "BirthDate". For example: "The value of BirthDate cannot be greater than today's date."

The analyst creates the object-role model by adding each new fact type and constraint into the object-role model. The analyst uses an ORM tool to generate easy-to-read sentences that show the fact types and constraints that have been defined within the object-role model.

This makes it easy for sponsors to check that the model accurately represents their ideas. The sponsor just agrees or disagrees with the formal output generated by the ORM tool. The cycle of input and validation continues until the model is considered complete.

The analyst then generates a data structure against which developers can write application software. The data structure can be a class model or a relational database schema. When generating a relational schema, the ORM tool automatically generates a fully normalized schema which avoids the considerable effort required for manual normalization that is needed in the ER method. 

Cost conscious managers should note that ORM helps to reduce development costs and helps to minimize the risk of making costly design errors.


What is the history of ORM? ORM has evolved from European research into semantic modeling during the 1970's. There were many contributors and this paragraph only mentions a few. In 1973, the IBM Systems Journal published a paper by Michael Senko about "Data Structuring". In 1974 Jean-Raymond Abrial contributed an article about "Data Semantics" and in June 1975, Eckhard Falkenberg published his doctoral thesis. In 1976, Falkenberg used the term "object-role model" in one of his papers. Later, Sjir Nijssen introduced the "circle-box" notation together with an early version of the conceptual schema design procedure. Robert Meersman added subtyping, and a conceptual query language.

In 1989, Terry Halpin formalized ORM in his PhD thesis. In the same year, Terry and Sjir Nijssen co-authored the book "Conceptual Schema and Relational Database Design".

ORM Tools: Early ORM tools such as IAST and RIDL* (Control Data) were followed by InfoDesigner (ServerWare), InfoModeler (Asymetrix) and VisioModeler (Visio Corporation). In 2000, Microsoft bought the Visio Corporation and improved VisioModeler.  In 2003, Microsoft published its first ORM implementation as a component of Visual Studio for Enterprise Architects called "Microsoft Visio for Enterprise Architects" (VEA).  

Microsoft retained VEA in the high-end version of Visual Studio 2005 but then discontinued its ORM project. The book "Database Modeling with Microsoft Visio for Enterprise Architects" (see sidebar) contains a comprehensive guide to VEA

Terry Halpin and Matt Curland have developed an ORM tool called "Natural ORM Architect for Visual Studio" (NORMA). You can download the latest release of NORMA from the Library.  

How can I learn more? The definitive book on ORM is "Information Modeling and Relational Databases - Second Edition". You can order the book by clicking on the image in the sidebar.

The research page describes the scientific experiment that I used to support my MSc dissertation in 2008. I designed the experiment to test the hypothesis that "ORM based methods require at least 25% less effort than alternative methods such as UML and ER."  

The Forum contains over 3,000 posts of ORM related discussions. The Library contains ORM software, ORM tutorials and over one hundred ORM presentations of peer reviewed scientific papers given by ORM researchers at the annual ORM Workshops.

You can browse the Library and Forum and registered members can download documents and participate in the forum discussions.

Recent spam attacks on this website mean that membership is now "by invitation only". If you want to request membership, click on the "join" button at the top right and fill in the form.

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