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pdf Automated Verbalization for ORM2

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Presentation of a paper by Terry Halpin ( and Matthew Curland (

Abstract: In the analysis phase of information systems development, it is important to have the conceptual schema validated by the business domain expert to ensure that the schema accurately models the relevant aspects of the business domain. An effective way to facilitate this validation is to verbalize the schema in language that is both unabiguous and easily understood by the domain expert, who may be non-technical. Such verbalization has long been a major aspect of the Object-Role Modeling approach, and basic support for verbalization exists in some tools. Second generation ORM (ORM 2) significantly extends the expressibility of ORM models (e.g. deontic modalities, role value constraints, etc ) This paper discusses the automated support for verbalization of ORM 2 models provided by NORMA (Neumont ORM Architect), an open source software tool that facilitates entry, validation and mapping of ORM 2 models. NORMA supports verbalization petterns that go well beyond previous verbalization work. The verbalization for individual elements in the core ORM model is generated using an XSLT transform applied to an XML file that succinctly identifies different verbalization patterns and describes how phrases are combined to produce a readable verbalization. This paper discusses the XML patterns used to describe ORM constraints and the tightly coupled facilities that enable end-users to easily adapt the verbalization phrases to cater for different domain experts and native languages.

Paper available from OTM workshops 2006, LNCS 4278, pp. 1181-1190  Springer-Verlang Berlin Heidelberg   

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